Raspberry pi and Arduino are completely different devices and used in different aspects. Each device has its own advantage and disadvantage. You have to decide between these two devices depending on your project requirements. These devices differ from each other in operating system, speed, cost, interfacing flexibility, power consumption, processor type, on chip memory and communication protocols. So in discussion of raspberry pi vs arduino, these are the factors that differentiate these two boards from each other.
Arduino board developed by Italian company has much ease for those who do not know hardware. They can easily interface with hardware without any hardware knowledge. However, the main thing that differentiate between raspberry pi and Arduino is that Raspberry Pi has its own operating system (Linux) which helps it to manage complex tasks. Also, operating system in raspberry pi makes it a mini computer instead of a strict iot board. While Arduino is strictly an iot device.
Usually, in Raspberry PI vs Arduino, raspberry pi takes advantage in case of speed, operating system (OS), processor, complex tasks management, and communication setup. While, Arduino takes advantage in memory alignment, cost, sensitivity, and control. We will talk about all these points in detail in table given below
Raspberry Pi board is faster than Arduino board. Its processor has more executing speed than arduino board. Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ has 1.4 giga hertz processing speed. Although operating system running on it can slower its speed but still it is much faster than other board.
Arduino boards are much slower than raspberry pi boards. These boards just have a processing speed of 16 Mhz which is much lesser. So, Arduino processor is much slower compared to other board
Raspberry can run operating system (just like computer runs windows, Linux or Macos). So, these boards are much flexible and configurable to customers. If user want to re-configure device, he can easily access code through Operating system and done.
NO OPERATING SYSTEM:
These cannot run any operating system on it. So, it would not be configurable to user in future. The user have to rely on code already inserted in it and user has no access to change it unless creator provide him with code.
64 BIT PROCESOR:
Raspberry Pi is a 64 bit processor. So, it provides with greater range/precision. You get a huge amount of accuracy using raspberry PI processors
8 BIT PROCESSOR:
Arduino is just a 8 bit processor and it provides us with less precision. You get a very less accuracy in these boards as compared to raspberry pi.
Raspberry PI has one giga SRAM and micro SD card
Usually, Arduino has 1k EEPROM, 32K Flash and 2k SRAM.
Raspberry PI has more memory as compared to Arduno but these address spaces are 64 bits aligned. So, these address spaces cannot used efficiently.
Arduino has much less memory as compared to other board but you have much address space as these address are 8 bit aligned so, you have more control over memory and you can use memory efficiently.
I/O voltage level is lower in raspberry PI boards. It means Raspberry PI board has 3.3 volts on I/O pins. These parameters are very useful in designing a circuit and power consuming of circuit.
I/O voltage level is much higher in Arduino boards. It has 5V voltage at I/O pin. Which means Arduino consumes more power than Raspberry PI boards.
SENSITIVE TOWARDS POWER:
Raspberry PI is much sensitive towards power. If you try to draw or consume more power from raspberry PI boards, it will immediately reboot and create problems for us.
Arduino is much more resistant towards power as compare to raspberry PI boards. So, in case of controlled operations, you must prefer Arduino over raspberry pi boards.
You can program raspberry PI with many languages. Mainly, you can program Raspberry PI with python. However, these boards also have extension for other programming languages such as C, C++, and Ruby. Due to its programming with python, it’s much loved as almost 60% of computer science students in world know python programming.
Arduino can only be programmed with C or C++ programming language.
Having an operating system makes it much suitable for complicated tasks. In computer vision tasks, you won’t have to start vision from scratch, you just have to use library such as openCv from scratch and you are done.
Arduino is mostly used in simple tasks and learning purpose. Mostly electronics and computer science student, who want to start career in iot start from this device
RASPBERRY PI SETUP:
Raspberry requires a complete setup for working. As you have Operating system embed in it, you have to connect it to separate HDMI screen for working; also, you have to attach a mouse and keyboard for working just like computer.
Arduino does not require any specific setup for working. You can easily program with your laptop. You just need a breadboard, sensors and jumper wire requires for working.
Raspberry Pi setup is much expensive. Average raspberry Pi board is of 35-60$. Furthermore, you need separate HDMI for interfacing.
Arduino is much cheaper than raspberry PI boards. You can buy a Arduino boards in 5-10$. You don’t need any extra thing for interfacing.
ON CHIP MEMORY:
Raspberry boards do not have any on chip memory. It provides us with extra space for SD card.
ON CHIP MEMORY:
Arduino boards have on chip much memory which is 1k EEPROM, 32K Flash and 2k SRAM.
FLEXIBILTY IN INTERFACING:
Raspberry PI provides us much flexibility for interfacing/connecting with other devices. It has 4 USB to communicate with other devices.
LESS FLEXIBILTY IN INTERFACING:
Arduino just have only 1 USB port to connect with pc for cross platform development.
It is not strictly an iot device. It is a mini computer operating with Linux. It can be used either as an iot device or it can be used either as a computer depending on requirements.
STRICTLY IOT DEVICE:
Arduino is strictly an iot device which can be used for specific purpose only.
Arduino uses itw own ide for development which is much suitable for development. However other ide such as coeblocks or visual studio can also be used
Raspberry pi uses scratch, IDLE or any other IDE supporting Linux
WI-FI AND ETHERNET
Raspberry PI has already embedded Wifi, Ethernet or other networks for communication
WI-FI AND ETHERNET
Arduino does not have any built in wifi or Ethernet connection. You can use them with special devices called shields. Arduino libraries are available for interfacing with these shields.
Now, you have clear understanding of all the features and parameters of both raspberry pi and Arduino boards. I hope you will be able to select the board effectively depends on need of your projects. You can have detail comparison of arduino vs raspberry pi in following infographics