The Internet of things is prevising everywhere. It has become hard to find any industry, an application that is safer from the impact of internet of things and IoT based apps. So people are keen to learn about what the internet of things is and why it is becoming so popular. IoT is playing an active roll in the 4th industrial revolution. In this article, you will see every aspect of the internet of things from definition to examples and practical usage
We can define the internet of things as any system which has the ability to collect data, perform computation on data (via micro-controller) and update user via user interface connecting with the internet.
Agenda of the internet of things
The agenda of the internet of things is to automate every application in wold for the ease and comfort of human beings. Working on the agenda, it has converted almost 50 billion devices in world into IoT based automated systems and connected these applications through the internet to their personal phones and laptops to keep them aware of the device’s performance. These devices are updating day by day providing more and more features to user interface thus increasing the ease for them as much as possible. More than 50 billion devices have been connected throughout the world today and it is estimated that by the end of 2025, these devices will increase up to two trillion. So there is an exponential increase in the growth of IoT is observed which is always considered as the best curve for growth in any technology.
General Working of any Internet of thing application :
To know what the internet of things is, first we have to know the general features of any IoT based system. Any IoT based application has three parts
- Data Collector or sensors
- Computational Machine or microcontroller
- Networking or internet connectivity
- Data collection Via Sensors
As we know that IoT based systems are intelligent and make the decision according to requirements. They make decisions on the basis of data collected from the environment and this purpose of data collection is brought by using sensors. There are a variety of sensors available in the market for different purposes. We can find a sensor for any purpose in market depends on our need whether we want a light sensor or a water sensor, a heat sensor or pressure sensor, or any other sensor of our need. These sensors are available in a variety of forms i-e wireless form, complex form for computational efficiency, and so on.
- Microcontroller: A computational Machine
After collection of data, what internet of things application does is to use a computational machine to perform computation on data, extract the useful results using algorithms and take a necessary step required to maintain the situation. Microcontrollers are mostly used for computation in internet of Things apps. There are a variety of microcontrollers are available in the market and we select the microcontroller depending on the need for computation required for our projector system.
Most famous microcontrollers available in the market for IoT based applications are
- Arm-based processors are most important because these processors are used in MAC books and other applications now a day. These are available in different features for different applications and prices.
- Raspberry pi microcontrollers are also well worth learning as they can be programmed by python programming language and more than 70% of technical students in America know to code in python.
- Arduino Boards. These are not market-friendly but can be very useful for students at the beginner level as these are much cheaper and easy to use
Languages use to program microcontrollers
There are different languages to program microcontrollers such as python, C/C++, Java, etc. But each microcontroller is promised to some of these languages but not to all
Arm-based Processors can be coded by
Raspberry PI can be programmed by
Arduino boards can be programmed by
Internet connectivity: Why called the internet of things
We have named the system internet of things but not use the word internet yet. So let’s have a look at it. After we perform computation on data and extract results, the last purpose is to interact with the user. That’s where internet connectivity comes in. We connect our system via the internet to the user and users can easily communicate with the device through the user interface provide to them. For example, if the sensor senses abnormal heat in IoT based refrigerator, it will compute the situation, shut down the system if needed, and warn the user through the internet. So we can see what the internet of things application has provided to us. An easy and secure way of using technology
The implementations use various technical communication models, each with its own characteristics. 4 usual communication models described by the Internet Architecture Board include
- Device to Device,
- Device to Cloud
- Device to Gateway
- Back End Data Sharing
Example what internet of things systems are:
We discuss the above points with the help of IoT based refrigerators. If you look at technology 20 or 30 years ago, you will find everything manual. The freezer of your house works when you switch the button. But today Iot based refrigerators can do much more than manual freezers. You can use different types of sensors for different tasks. Your IoT based refrigerator can use weight sensors to measure vegetables/grocery in your freezer and if the computational machine (microcontroller) found that grocery is less, It will immediately order grocery from some sort of website or it can warn you via mail or message ( as it has online connectivity). Similarly, in case of any damage in the refrigerator, it can send messages to a mechanic for repairing or shut down the system if computation sends inappropriate signals for system safety. Similarly, we can use it in no. of different applications. Internet of things is also using in many Cars such as Prius which is using more than 50 microcontrollers for different functionalities.
Internet of Things is the interconnection of various devices, machines, or appliances that generate data. IoT embraces the connectivity of non-traditional devices, like automobiles, house applications, smartphones, and smart devices that have electronic sensors and software embedded in their core systems. The underlying goal of the Internet of things is not just to create data, but also to extract valuable results/insights and information from the data generated by these devices. Various industries, governments, and consumers to serve their needs can then effectively deploy these insights
Application of IoT
There are some of the enormous and mind-blowing applications of the internet of things that will dominate the tech era in the coming years. According to industry Gurus, both the consumers and the industries will see great advances in IoT based devices thus bringing a great difference in the lifestyle and living of people. Some of these applications are given below
IoT based Smart Cities:
Smart cities use the Internet of Things based devices and systems such as connected sensors, LEDs, and meters to collect and analyze data. The smart cities then use this data to improve the infrastructure of cities, public utilities, better management and services, and more. The computational machines in smart houses efficiently manipulate data and use it effectively for cost reduced and efficient systems in smart cities.
The manual way of consuming energy is very costly and inefficient to mankind. The manual methods cause a huge loss of useful energy every year thus increasing cost. Energy can be managed in a useful manner if its consumption by the users and resources is monitored in a well-organized way. The IoT based application trends can easily be integrated/embedded into resources for better consumption and management of energy. This helps in making the lives of people easier, better, and more comfortable.
IoT based application trends of the following years will change retail supply chain management even better than it ever be. It will change the shopping experience making it easier for the users/consumers to make online purchases. As indicated from the refrigerator given above, we can see that refrigerator can order itself the grocery and other things.
One most important application of IoT that will clearly impact is in the field of healthcare and fitness. Healthcare IoT based devices are well configured makes it easier to monitor the health status of the patients. Nowadays, IoT based health kits are available in markets which effectively takes care of certain parts of body, collect data, and compare it with the data of average human on the internet. If any abnormality occurs, it immediately warns the user and in case of emergency, it can also contact nearby hospitals or ambulance for help.
Soon, the Internet of things will replace manual scientific devices with automated ones. We will soon find our environment where everything will be controlled by our mobile phones or laptops. And these devices are much easier to operate and they will be more cost-efficient than ever.